MUMBAI: On 6 January when the Reserve Bank of India announced its first Operation Twist, the government had to pay a premium of 0.80 percentage points to borrow through a 10-year bond instead of the 1-year treasury bill.
Fast forward to today, that term premium has widened to 2.21 percentage points. In between this time, the RBI has done three operation twist auctions.
Operation Twist is nothing but selling short-term and buying long-term bonds in order to flatten the yield curve. Just like the infection curve of the coronavirus pandemic refuses to be tamed, the yield curve too is acting stubborn.
Bond traders believe that the central bank is not putting its heart into its Operation Twist. Hence the results are far from satisfying. “They need to be slightly more consistent and do these periodically,” said Lakshmi Iyer, chief investment officer, debt and head-products, Kotak Mahindra Asset Management Company
The latest auction, announced on Monday, is the fourth so far this year and comes after a gap of nearly two months.
The widening of the term premium is largely because of a collapse of short-term yields. The yield on 91-day and even the 364-day treasury bills is near all-time lows now. Even so, long-term bond yields have not eased commensurate to the liquidity and low interest rate conditions in the banking system.
Bond traders believe with more open market operations from the central bank, yields will drop.
The need for a flatter yield curve with long-term yields falling is critical for transmission to corporate bonds. Private sector issuers have not been able to raise money in tenures longer than five years simply because investors seek higher returns. This stubbornly high cost of borrowing has been felt even by AAA-rated companies.
In fact, the spread between the 10-year AAA-rated corporate bond and the corresponding government bond has only gone up.
It is clear that RBI’s Operation Twist is not making much difference and an increase in the frequency of intervention is needed. As companies begin to slowly make plans to raise long-term money, transmission needs to pick up. For now, since the need is only for working capital, low short-term yields are helping issuers in the corporate bond market.